Английский язык. 11 класс

Урок 10. Grammar in Use

Grammar in use
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Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun or a relative adverb

We use who(m)/that to speak about people

We use which/that to speak about things

We use whose with people, animals and objects to show possession

You can omit who,which and that if they are the object in the relative clause.

You can’t omit who,which and that if they are the subject in the relative clause.

We use when/that to speak about the time

We use where to speak about places

We use why to speak about the reason

There can be defining (necessary information, we don’t put commas) and non-defining (additional information, we put commas) relative clauses

To speak about purpose you can use different variants:

to/in order to/so as to + inf; so that +can/will (for present and future)/could/would (for past); with the view to/with the aim of + ing-form; for+noun/ing-form; in case+Present Simple (for present)/Past Simple (for past).

To speak about NEGATIVE purpose you can use different variants: so as not/in order not +inf; so that +can’t/won’t (for present and future)/couldn’t/wouldn’t (for past); for fear+might/should; for fear of smth/of doing smth; to prevent +noun/pronoun + (from) ing-form; to avoid+ing-form

To speak about reason you can use different variants: because, as, for(=because) VERY FORMAL, on the grounds that, because of/due to + noun/ing-form/the fact that

To speak about result you can use different variants: as a result/as a consequence/consequently/therefore/so + that, such + (adj) + uncount.pl.noun+that, such + (a lot of)+ (adj) +noun+that, so+adj/adv+that, so+few/little/many/much + noun+ that, so+adj+a/an+noun + that.

Grammar in use
  • We can use with instead of whose to make speech less formal.

The woman with the dark hair is my mum. (not The woman whose hair is dark is my mum)

  • To speak about animals and things we can also use less formal variant instead of whose – which has

My aunt owns a dog which has a lot of awards from dog shows.

  •  If we want to comment the fact from the main clause, we can use a non-defining clause with which (we can comment any facts – about people, animals or things )

My younger brother’s crashed his new car, which is very stupid. (Мой младший брат разбил новую машину, что очень глупо.)

Clauses

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