Английский язык. 11 класс
Урок 10. Grammar in Use
Grammar in use
Relative clauses begin with a relative pronoun or a relative adverb
We use who(m)/that to speak about people
We use which/that to speak about things
We use whose with people, animals and objects to show possession
You can omit who,which and that if they are the object in the relative clause.
You can’t omit who,which and that if they are the subject in the relative clause.
We use when/that to speak about the time
We use where to speak about places
We use why to speak about the reason
There can be defining (necessary information, we don’t put commas) and non-defining (additional information, we put commas) relative clauses
To speak about purpose you can use different variants:
to/in order to/so as to + inf; so that +can/will (for present and future)/could/would (for past); with the view to/with the aim of + ing-form; for+noun/ing-form; in case+Present Simple (for present)/Past Simple (for past).
To speak about NEGATIVE purpose you can use different variants: so as not/in order not +inf; so that +can’t/won’t (for present and future)/couldn’t/wouldn’t (for past); for fear+might/should; for fear of smth/of doing smth; to prevent +noun/pronoun + (from) ing-form; to avoid+ing-form
To speak about reason you can use different variants: because, as, for(=because) VERY FORMAL, on the grounds that, because of/due to + noun/ing-form/the fact that
To speak about result you can use different variants: as a result/as a consequence/consequently/therefore/so + that, such + (adj) + uncount.pl.noun+that, such + (a lot of)+ (adj) +noun+that, so+adj/adv+that, so+few/little/many/much + noun+ that, so+adj+a/an+noun + that.
Grammar in use
- We can use with instead of whose to make speech less formal.
The woman with the dark hair is my mum. (not The woman whose hair is dark is my mum)
- To speak about animals and things we can also use less formal variant instead of whose – which has
My aunt owns a dog which has a lot of awards from dog shows.
- If we want to comment the fact from the main clause, we can use a non-defining clause with which (we can comment any facts – about people, animals or things )
My younger brother’s crashed his new car, which is very stupid. (Мой младший брат разбил новую машину, что очень глупо.)