Английский язык. 11 класс
Урок 42. Cinemas
In England, going to the cinema is one of the most popular leisure activities. Most towns have a cinema, usually one with several screens. These cinemas show all the big films from Hollywood in the USA, and a much smaller number from other countries. However, there are many festivals which show films that may normally not be shown at cinemas. The festivals last for several days and show many films. You are going to find out about two festivals in England: The London Film Festival and The Sheffield documentary film festival.
Conditionals are clauses introduced with if. The main types of conditionals are: Type 0, Type 1, Type 2, Type 3. Conditional clauses consist of two parts: the if-clause ( it expresses hypothesis) – the subordinate clause - and the principal clause , which expresses the result . When the if-clause comes before the main clause, the two clauses are separated with a comma: If I were you, I wouldn’t miss this chance.
When the principal clause comes before the if-clause, then no comma is necessary: I wouldn’t miss this chance if I were you.
Type 1 conditionals (real present) are used to express a real or very probable situation in the present or future.
If she does well at the interview, she will get the job.
With type 1 conditionals we can use unless + affirmative verb (= if + negative verb).
She will not speak to him unless he apologises. (If he doesn’t apologise, she will not speak to him.)
Type 2 conditionals (unreal present) are used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the present, and therefore, are unlikely to happen in the present or the future.
We can use either were or was for 1st and 3rd person singular in the if-clause. We can also use the structure If I were you, ... to give advice.
If I had a good voice, I would become a singer.
If I were you, I would stay in tonight.(advice)
Type 3 conditionals (unreal past) are used to express imaginary situations which are contrary to facts in the past. They are also used to express regrets or criticism:
If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exams.
All types of conditionals can be mixed. Any tense combination is possible if the context permits it:
If he knew her, he would have spoken to her (Type II-Type III)
Conditionals are usually introduced by if. Other expressions are: unless (= if not), providing, provided (that), as long as, on condition (that), but for + -ing form/noun, otherwise, or else, what if, supposing, even if, only if.
Unless she starts studying harder, she’s going to fail her exams.
If can be omitted in if-clauses. In this case should (cond. type 1), were (cond. type 2) and had (cond. type 3) come before the subject. It is called inversion:
If he should pass the exam, he will apply to university. ➝ Should he pass the exam, he will apply to university.
If there were an election tomorrow, who would you vote for? ➝ Were there an election tomorrow, who would you vote for?
If I had known, I would have told you. ➝ Had I known, I would have told you.
We can use I wish/if only to express a wish. If only is used in exactly the same way as I wish but it is more emphatic or more dramatic.
I wish I was not working right now. (but I am)
If only I were going to the concert tonight. (but I’m not)
Phrasal verb «carry» is followed by the prepositions through, off, out, on
Mind the use of dependent prepositions into/ from/ in after the verbs graduate, cheat, research, succeed