Английский язык. 11 класс
Урок 29. Modals
Can/ could, may/ might, must/ had to, ought to, shall/ should, will/ would have the common rules.
● don’t take –s, -ing, -ed affixes
● are followed by the bare infinitive
● come before the subject in questions and are followed by not in negations
● They don’t have tenses in the normal sense
● Must (past: had to) - duty and strong obligation especially when the speakers themselves have decided it
● Have to (past: had to) - strong necessity or obligation when we are made to do something under some circumstances
● Should /ought to -duty or weak obligation
Absence of necessity
● Don’t have to/don’t need to/needn’t (past - didn’t have to) - something which isn’t necessary to do in the present or future
● Needn’t have done - something which wasn’t necessary to do in the past but it was done
● Can/ may (more formal) - permission
● Can’t/ mustn’t - the action is forbidden
● Can +bare infinitive - theoretical possibility not for specific situations
● Could/may/might + bare infinitive - possibility for specific situations
● Could/might/ would + perfect infinitive - possibility in the past but it didn’t happen
● Can (past – could )- ability in the present and future
● Was able - ability on a specific occasion in the past
● Must - almost certain that it is /was true
● May/might /could - possible that it is /was true
● Can’t and couldn’t - almost certain that it is / was impossible
● Will- 100% certain about the action in future
● Should / ought - 90% certain about the action
● Could /should to show critical attitude towards the action
● Can I/Shall I…?
● Can you/ Could you/Would you…?
● Should /ought to - general advice
Shall - asking for advice
You can use
● We use can’t or not allowed to to say that there is a rule NOT to do something:
They’re not allowed to use mobiles in the exam.
● We can use mustn’t usually to explain rules or instructions.
Remember, children, you mustn’t ride your bikes with the cars or you’ll be injured!
● To talk about negative rules in the past or future we use wasn’t\weren’t allowed to and won’t be allowed to.
When I was a child I wasn’t allowed to stay outdoors late.
● If there is NO rule that something is necessary, we use don’t have to, NOT mustn’t.
1. You don’t have to eat in this place, do as you like. (You have a choice)
2. You mustn’t eat in this place. (You have no choice, because it’s forbidden to eat in this place)